Thursday, March 12, 2020

Molding Gender Roles essays

Molding Gender Roles essays "What is gender? It is something everyone has, but rarely thinks about. They know they are either a man or a woman and simply take it for granted. Does it mean genetic status as XX or XY, or does it mean the sum of our development up until birth? Or is it simply the social label applied to us by our birth certificates?" (About Gender). In one short essay, "Women and Men Talking on the Job," Deborah Tannen argues that gender roles are defined from our peers when we are children. On the other hand, in "How Men and Women Think," Nicholas Wade disagrees saying the difference may be the direct result of men and women brains. Most people believe that we learn to behave the way we do, while a few argue that behavior is instinctive and predicted by our biology. In American societies, girls are taught by their family members and peers to act in feminine ways. As the child grows, it learns that certain expressions of its personality are appropriate to its sexual label, while others are not. Although times have changed, stereotypical images and ideas of women can still be found. For instance, women are known to be more intuitive, emotional, and submissive. One of the aspects of femininity, submission, can be developed through the relationship of childs parents. In the stereotypical marriage, the wife is submissive to the husband. When the daughter witnesses this relationship, she learns to mirror her mothers behavior. However, her peers also hold a strong impact on her actions. For example, when girls act too aggressively they lose acceptance from their peers. Tannen discusses these social impacts on girls stating, "From childhood, girls learn to temper what they say so as not to sound too aggressive-which means to certain" (Tannen 5 53). She adds, "Being a leader often involves giving directions to others, but girls who tell other girls what to do are called bossy" (Tannen 553). For ...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Evaluating the impact of CSR on consumer buying behaviour, An Essay

Evaluating the impact of CSR on consumer buying behaviour, An empirical study from the UK consumer, and company perspective - Essay Example any develops and the more that it increases in size, the more does it become visible to the public’s consciousness and the more that it is expected to be responsible for its business processes and the impact of such processes on society (Daub & Ergenzinger, 2006). Corporate social responsibility is something that is focused on doing not only what is right but what is fair, while at the same time, avoiding causing harm. It can therefore be perceived as a manner with which a company regulated its activities (Moir, 2001). Corporate sustainability on the other hand, refers to the sustainable development and the ability of a company to generate performance for the long-term, in order to make sure that the company survives amidst its competition (Munilla & Miles, 2005). However, in order to make sure that corporate sustainability is possible, it is important that the company makes sure that they meet the needs and expectations of their stakeholders, while they also seek to protect, support and enhance the resources acquired from human labour and the natural resources that are needed by the entire community in future years (Strategic Direction, 2008). According to Van der Putten (2005), the stakeholder theory is one that has brought about the importance of corporate social responsibility or CSR among business organizations. Based in this theory, companies do not only have a responsibility towards the society within which they hold their operations, but also their shareholders, their employees, their consumers, their suppliers and their local communities (Vogel, 2005). In this context, it is the responsibility of any company to make sure that they are able to give something back to the entire community and the environment, both of which have helped them to become successful, or continues to contribute to their success (Bronn & Vrioni, 2001). The implementation and the continuation of corporate social responsibility among business organizations actually ‘constitutes

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Sustainability and visual arts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Sustainability and visual arts - Essay Example The paper tells that nature has had a long history of influencing art, one that has extended from the masters bringing their palettes into their gardens to the contemporary earthworks of Andy Goldsworthy and others. However, in order for art to continue to be influenced by nature there must be nature to be influenced by. In a society where the population and urban landscapes are every burgeoning, Susan Leibovitz Steinman creates new landscapes out of urban devastation to promote sustainability and environmental education. Unlike other artist, who work in sites that can be difficult for the average viewer to experience firsthand, Steinman works in the heart of cities. In Mandela Artscape, Steinman literally worked in the middle of the street, at the crossroads of industry and ecology. This project involved regrouping West Oakland community members to reclaim a part of their town that had been destroyed by an earthquake in 1989, by turning the site into a creative, interactive, and env ironmentally friendly work of art. Steinman is not the first to transform the horrors ofa natural disaster into a reclamation project. In 1964, the "Great Good Friday Earthquake," the second largest recorded earthquake at that time with a magnitude of 9.2 on the Richter Scale, struck Anchorage, Alaska. One-hundred-and-thirty-one people perished, towns were buried, and tsunamis tore across the area. The only possible positive outcome of such a terrible natural catastrophe is the proactive and innovative reaction of the survivors. (US Geological Survey, 2004). The Anchorage Earthquake Park (figure 2) is the result of one particular reaction. The goal of this park was to reclaim a destroyed area and to educate people about the earthquake. There are bike paths, cross-country ski trails, picnic tables, and most importantly, information panels. In 1973, Smithson congratulated the people who reclaimed the Anchorage site through the creation of a park, stating that this action was "an inter esting way of dealing with the unexpected, and incorporating that into the community"(Smithson in Holt 1979: 192). Figure 2: The Anchorage Earthquake Park (Source: http://www.igougo.com/journal-j34852-Anchorage-The_Seward_Highway_Americas_Most_Scenic_Byway.html) The significance of Steinman's work, and that which distinguishes Mandela Artscape from the Anchorage Earthquake Park, is the interactive nature of the creative process, as people from the community were involved in every aspect of the project. It is also this element of engagement with the public that differentiates Steinman's work from others. Promoting Sustainability Steinman is critical of Western capitalist society. She is involved in many groups that have emerged as a response to the problem that the consumerist ideology presents. The Women Environmental Artists Directory (WEAD), for example, is an artist-produced, non-profit, national and international organization that Steinman and Jo Hanson founded in 1996. The WEAD lists over two hundred artists, all of whom adopt an activist approach to raising environmental awareness through art. Themes involve site, community and habitat specificity, an educational agenda, public participation, and works that are often temporary - many ideas that overlap with the new genre public art ideology (Hanson and Steinman, 2012). Steinman is also involved with a group called "eco art network" Similarly, the mandate of this group is to create ecological works of art that promote sustainability and environmental education (Ecoartnetwork.org, 2012). Consumerism is a basic concern for artists involved in environmental art, sometimes referred to as "ecoart." As stated by artist Ruth Wallen, "much ecoart is motivated by a recognition that current patterns

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Struggles and the Victories of Modern France Essay Example for Free

The Struggles and the Victories of Modern France Essay Introduction Modern France has been a product of the historical struggles between the then prevailing Catholic Church and monarchy and the rising influence of intellectuals and revolutionaries. Pierre Birnbaums The Idea of France traces the roots of the modern French state and how the current status quo had been influenced by the ideological, political and social struggles that have shaken the country. Essentially, Birnbaum argued that France as we know it today was a product of one of the most important periods in the history of France- the Enlightenment and the French Revolution of 1789. Hence, much of what democracy in France today can be attributed to that period and the succeeding years of struggle to reach its current political stability. The Idea of France France according to Birnbaum has seen its soul as residing in a privileged relationship with reason (Birnbaum, xiii). This hallmarks the principles of enlightenment where reason was the primary tool in governing human activity particularly in the affairs of the state, the individuals and the society. Hence, it was a call to end the prevailing rule of the Church and the monarchy that was the remnants of the Middle Ages which is seen by the revolutionists as irrational and superstitious. Therefore, from the side of the revolution activists, the emergence of the power residing in the people emerged through the National Assembly or the Third Estate which received criticisms and oppositions from the traditionalists composed of the monarchy and the Church. From the oppositions and the struggle for supremacy in the government, Birnbaum argued that these antagonistic forces had served as the birthmark of the contemporary French democracy particularly its emphasis on plurality. While Modern France was built in over 200 years after the Enlightenment period, this era according to Birnbaum marked the time when the future of modern France was first hallmarked. In doing so, Birnbaum traced the origins and the development of the political antagonists and protagonists in order to support and defend the current status quo in an era when monarchy and the belief in the divine power was the norm. The division of France also stemmed from philosophers- those defending the reign of the Catholic Church and the monarchy and those who had been advocating a reform in the current system as advocated by the likes of Tocqueville. Hence, Birnbaum described the Third Republic as fraught with divisiveness reaching its peak in the Bloody Week of June 1871 and the conservatives gaining the upper hand. However, this victory was temporary and the ensuing Liberation and the Fourth Republic was established. At this time, France has already shifted to a parliamentary form of government existing in a coalition. At this time, the changes that were advocated during the French Revolution has been on process and the divisiveness still existed. It was only in the Fifth Republic that the political factions waned and the Republic and the Catholic Church evolved- they no longer exhibited the hatred that once fuelled their ideologies but rather have reformed their principles to change the anti-clericism. In doing so, the French government was able to provide for a pluralistic government as well as a cultural pluralism in the society of France. Analysis   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The primary strength of Birnbaums book is its ability to depict the contradictory forces in French history as both protagonists of democracy: it objectively portrayed the Catholic Church and the monarchy was essential elements in the reformation of a modern France. In doing so, Birnbaum avoids the overtly one-sided depiction of French history as nothing more than a struggle between proponents and opponents of democracy. Each had been ancillary to the other. Needless to say, the French Revolution occurred due to these two forces. Second, Birnbaum treated the 200 years and more as a history not only of politics but also of philosophies and of the people. For one, Birnbaum showed the historical context of the Modern France through a careful and thorough analysis of the cultural struggles in the country at the time. Moreover, it included an analysis of how France was able to overcome the multiculturalism at the time in order to give way to a more tolerant and a brand of French culturalism that is unique. Consequently, upon reading the book, one would appreciate the uniqueness of the French society and its struggles particularly in ushering the Enlightenment period. Hence, Birnbaum also showed readers and scholars from all over the world that the role France has played in modern democracies and current governmental structures are important. Third, while most history books would have delved into too much detail hence, focusing more on facts than on the importance of those facts, Birnbaum was able to capture the readers attention by focusing on the latter: the importance of events can only be appreciated if it can be related to what is relevant at the time and in modern times. Consequently, the only weakness of the book has been its inability to thoroughly relate the world events at the time and how it influenced the Frenchs history as well as how France had influenced other societies. While this is not central to the books theme, it would have given the readers the idea how revolutionary and how important the events in French history had been at a time when most governments are governed by the Church. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Guided by reason and a vision that looks at the society and the people as the primary guiding force for the changes in the society, The Idea of France rested on the argument that historical forces are all protagonists in shaping what French society and government is today. The actors primarily the Republicans and the Catholic Church and the monarchy including the opposing intellectuals and the people versus the nobility- all of these had been instrumental in creating the France that we know today. Modern democracies such as that of France springs from a multitude of events- in the case of The Idea of France it had been the increasing dismay of the people on the status quo governed by the Church and the monarchy. Essentially, The Idea of France by Birnbaum aptly captured the struggles and the victories of France in paving the way for a more democratic form of government particularly in establishing a government by the people and for the people. Concurrently, the struggle of France had endured years before it finally established the Modern France that we know today. Essentially, it is during the period of the Enlightenment and the succeeding years after it that the idea of modern France had been crafted and cemented. Work Cited Birnbaum, Pierre. The Idea of France. Hill and Wang. 352 pages. 2001.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Atwoods Tricks With Mirrors as a Declaration of Female Independence Es

Atwood's Tricks With Mirrors as a Declaration of Female Independence Relationships are complex things, with ever-changing dynamics. Some traditional roles are always played in the constant search for balance between giving and taking in relationships. Women have historically and stereotypically played the role of "giver" in male-female romantic unions. In recent years the gender laws of relationships have been changing and evolving, but even as recently as the 1970s and 1980s women have been restricted to the role of complacent giver in their relationships. Their freedom of thought and even private speech have been impossible to repress, however, and through broadening that communication, things have been forced into change. A perfect example of this form of communication as an attempt to change the role-playing games of relationships is Margaret Atwood's 1974 poem, "Tricks With Mirrors." Through the use of poetic devices such as metaphor and tone in "Tricks with Mirrors," Atwood attempts to explain and break free from the restrictions of these tradit ional dynamics in relationships.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In Part I of the poem, Atwood uses a seemingly vague introduction to the subject matter, but gets straight to the point. Within five lines, she distinctly identifies her role as a mirror as she says, "I enter with you / and become a mirror," (lines 4-5). She gives the impression that she is merely an object in this relationship - she is a mirror through which her self-absorbed lover may view himself. "Mirrors / are the perfect lovers," she states (lines 6-7). They show a constant and loyal reflection to whoever may stand in front of them. She is objectifying herself as she tells her lover to carry her carefully up the stairs and to ... ...She uses her tone of voice and the metaphors of mirrors and pools to make her case for freedom. Atwood's speaker is merely an object trapped in a relationship in which she serves only to reflect her lover to himself - and she no longer wishes to remain as such. She is seemingly ever patient in her endeavors, and continues to give throughout her quiet rebellion. All her lover ever does is take from her what he pleases - a faithful reflection of what he wishes to see in himself. Atwood defines these traditional roles in relationships while forming her opposition to the nature of these unfair dynamics. "Tricks with Mirrors" is almost an anthem for the oppressed woman - a statement that calmly explains a situation that needs to be changed. A deeper message may be found in the poem, however, as she conveys her detached unhappiness - do not become a mirror, she tells us.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Most They Ever Had Book Review

Cory W. Smith Mrs. Huskinsson English 101 18 November 2012 Book Review: The Most They Ever Had The Most They Ever Had is a story of suffering, hard work, and sacrifice. It is a collaboration of interviews conducted on the textile workers of the Profile cotton mill in Jacksonville, Alabama. The author of the book, Rick Bragg, compiles the stories of these people because he is one of them. He was raised in Jacksonville, Alabama. His older brother, Sam, worked at the mill. Bragg wrote this story of his people because it was a story that needed to be heard.The Most They Ever Had tells the simple lives of the men that just wanted to make a living to support a family and make it through this life to get to the next. The title is so fitting because they lived such simple lives that the mill coming to town meant survival. It meant having a somewhat stable job and the ability to buy a house and put food on the table. It was, in fact, the most they ever had. The job came with a price, however. The workers paid for their means of survival with their health. They worked unventilated rooms saturated with lint.The constant inhalation of these minute particles eventually caused damage to the workers lungs causing a disease called â€Å"brown lung. † Because the job was so sought after, the workers could lose their job for the smallest mishaps, even missing one day of work due to illness. The workers could be sick as dogs, but they would still clock in a put in their daily hours. Their daily struggles can teach the readers a lesson–to never take things in life for granted. These workers labor tirelessly day in and day out just to put a roof over their family’s head and food on the table.They worked in terrible conditions, but they rarely complained because they appreciated what they had. That, I believe, is a main purpose behind this book. Not only to tell the readers the stories of these true American heroes, but also to teach them this valuable lesson. T he Profile cotton mill opened its doors in Jacksonville, Alabama in 1905 and remained open until 2001 when it shut down without warning and left the workers still trying to pay off mortgages with no pension. Bragg tells the stories of the mountain people from this region just trying to get by paycheck to paycheck. He insights us on the tyrant mill owners and managers.He also informs us of the tragedies the workers endured like Charlie Hardy’s story of how he, â€Å"one of the best front-porch guitar pickers,† lost his â€Å"picking arm† to a machine in the mill and had to give up his talent. Or the tragic story of Leon Spears, the 65 year old man that began working at the mill when he was seventeen that has to carry an oxygen tank close by because of the damage done to his lungs by the cotton filled air of the mill. Bragg explains how the corrupt bosses would blame the workers’ troubled breathing on hangovers and laziness rather than inadequate working co nditions.Still, however, the workers would show up day after day because they knew that the mill gave them a means of survival. The workers of the mill never gave up hope, though, that things would get better, and, eventually, they did. Over time conditions improved. Profile mill workers, in time, earned â€Å"one of the best blue collar paychecks in the foothills. † The book is informative because it does exactly that–it informs. If I had not read this book, I would have never learned the stories of these brave Americans and their families. It tells you what life in a mid 20th century mill town was like.Bragg doesn’t stop at informative, however. He portrays the workers’ stories in a way that one becomes attached to them. Bragg writes in such an eloquent and descriptive manner that by the end of the book, one believes that he or she actually knows the mill workers of Jacksonville, Alabama. One of the most amazing components of this book, in my opinion, i s that the workers living this tragedy didn’t even realize that they were living one. It was just their life. They worked in such harsh working conditions and under such greedy bosses, but they didn’t look at themselves with pity. They didn’t complain.They did what they had to do to support their family and to make ends meet. Another intense part of the book for me was reading Charlie Hardy’s story. Charlie lost his arm to a machine and by result had to give up on his talent of guitar playing. Since I am a musician myself, I can hardly imagine what it would feel like to be told that I would never be able to play the guitar again. Rick Bragg’s The Most They Ever Had is amazing book of conquest over struggle. The mill workers of Jacksonville, Alabama gave life and limb to provide for their family and never gave up hope that someday things would get better.They never gave up on their families that depended on that paycheck. The Most They Ever Had show s that things in life don’t always come easy and that we must work hard for the things in life we love most. I highly recommend this book to anyone that likes a good conquest story because that’s what this story boils down to. It’s the story of how the workers of the Profile cotton mill trying to overcame the struggles of everyday life in the textile mill of Jacksonville, Alabama. Works Cited: Bragg, Rick. the most they ever had. San Fransisco: MacAdam/Cage, 2009. Print.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Decision Making Step - 1848 Words

Decision-Making Steps There are six steps typically associated with effective decision processes. These six steps in the Managerial Decision-Making Process are recognition of Decision Requirement, Diagnosis and Analysis of Causes, Development of Alternatives, Selection of Desired Alternative, Implementation of Chosen Alternative and Evaluation and Feedback.(Daft 1995) First steps in the decision-making steps are recognition of decision requirement. The ability to recognize what is known is usually very important in the decision making steps. Therefore, during making-decision managers need to recognition problems and opportunity. This is because decision making is the process of identifying problems and†¦show more content†¦(5) redesign the work area to make it more pleasant, and (6) dismiss or retrain those supervisors who are disliked by employees. Therefore, decision alternatives can be thought of as the tools for reducing the difference between the organization’s c urrent and desired performance. In the steps 4 , once the alternative have beeen developed, one must be selected. This might seem to be an obvious step after all, this is because managers have already determined what their best alternative is. However, this best alternative will be based on the amount of information available to the managers and by their imperfect judgement. In addition, the manager’s goal is to make the choice with the least amount of risk and uncertainty. Because some risk is inherent for most non-programmed decisions, managers try to gauge prospects for success. Under conditions of uncertainly, they may have to relt on their intution and experience to estimate whether a given course of action is likely to succeed. (Daft 1995) For example, let us assume our problem is the low performance of sales department. We might believe that performance of sales would be most conveniently increased if we dismissed the department supervisor. But our investigation discovers that the superv isors is extremely important forShow MoreRelatedSteps Of Decision Making Process1873 Words   |  8 PagesEXECUTIVE SUMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. FIVE STEPS OF DECISION-MAKING PROCESS Schiffman et al. (2011, pp. 460 - 481) maintain five steps of decision-making process which are: 1. Need recognition 2. Information search 3. Evaluation of alternative 4. Purchase decision 5. Post-purchase evaluation These five steps would be applied to describe the interviewee s decision-making process: 1. Need recognition The interviewee recognized his need when his old printer started to malfunction a lot . It is timeRead MoreSteps Of The Administrative Model Of Decision- Making857 Words   |  4 Pages There are five steps of the Administrative Model of Decision- Making. 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